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Sapphire captivated the tech world, as it offered the potential of a nearly scratch-proof and more touch-sensitive display. It also provided a possible fresh competitor for Corning, whose Gorilla Glass is used in more than 2.7 billion devices worldwide. While chatter about sapphire displays on smartphones is likely to continue, questions remain about whether the material will be able to break out of mobile niches, such as luxury or rugged smartphones, and reach the mass market. Sapphire is hard. On the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, the material clocks in at a 9 out of 10, while Gorilla Glass registers only a 6 or 7. The dense, crystalline material is so hard that few things in the world can actually scratch it, so it must be cut and polished using diamond, a 10 on the Mohs scale and the hardest mineral on earth.
While consumers have likely heard of sapphire gemstone, a naturally occurring material used in jewelry, the same chemical configuration has been grown synthetically for more than a century for many industrial uses and for the faces of select luxury watches, Right now, sapphire is primarily a bit player in the tech industry, serving an essential, though unflashy, role in the iphone case neck strap manufacture of light emitting diodes and radio-frequency computer chips, But its recent association with Apple significantly raised its visibility..
Without the impurities that give natural sapphire its color, the man-made version of sapphire is transparent. Grown in furnaces then cut into thin slices, this synthetic sapphire can be used as a display cover, which -- thanks to its crystalline structure -- is extremely hard, corrosion resistant and able to withstand high temperatures. As a downside, sapphire is denser than display glass, so an all-sapphire cover on an iPhone 5 would add 9 percent to 10 percent to the weight of the 112 gram smartphone, according to Bernstein Research. Sapphire also doesn't transmit light as effectively as glass, which could be a drain on battery life because a device would have to pump out more light. Aware of these issues, GT Advanced is already trying to make sapphire sheets that are lighter and thinner than they are today.
Right now, only a handful of device makers use the material for displays in specialty phones, For instance, Britain's Vertu makes luxury sapphire-display smartphones worth more than $10,000, Japan's Kyocera offers the extra-durable Brigadier for $100 with a two-year contract in the US, and China's Huawei unveiled the Ascend P7 Sapphire Edition, though a price hasn't been announced, Views on sapphire's strengths versus display glass tend to vary widely depending on whom you're asking, Corning, which has repeatedly criticized the use of sapphire as iphone case neck strap a mobile-device display, says its testing found that though sapphire is harder to scratch than its Gorilla Glass, daily use of a sapphire display will produce tiny cracks in the material, Those cracks can easily proliferate and cause the display to break more easily over time than Gorilla Glass, As a major manufacturer of industrial crystals, Corning should know a thing or two about sapphire, It used to make tubes of it for high-temperature lighting during the 1960s and 1970s, according to Jeffrey Evenson, Corning's operations chief of staff..
"As material guys, we think Gorilla has a lot more potential," Evenson said, who added that glass is much easier to manipulate into different forms, such as with the rounded Gorilla Glass display of the new Samsung Note Edge smartphone. Also, sapphire takes substantially longer to produce than glass -- about "two orders of magnitude" more, Evenson said -- and costs a lot more, too. Bernstein in February said a sapphire display would cost $15 to $30, while a Gorilla Glass display costs $3. That price difference would either pressure Apple's profit margins on the iPhone, whose margins are already trending down, or would push up the cost of the device.
Kyocera spokesman John Chier disputed the claim that sapphire was more susceptible to breakage in the long term, saying its hardness made it "far more resistant" to micro-fractures in the first place, He added that the company's Brigadier phone display is virtually scratch-proof and holds up well against impact, Additionally, the company tried reducing concerns about the material's heaviness by focusing on a ruggedized device, which iphone case neck strap caters to customers more interested in durability than weight, Huawei claims the smooth surface of its Ascend P7, which will sell in China, makes the handset more visually appealing..
"At least in the near future, sapphire is the future for some mobile device displays," Chier said. "For more rugged devices like Brigadier, sapphire can make a lot of sense."If Corning were ever to lose Apple as a Gorilla Glass customer, the effect on its revenue would be minimal, estimated at 1 percent to 2 percent, Bernstein said. The reputational impact would likely be a much larger issue, said Amitabh Passi, an analyst at UBS covering Corning, and such a move could cause other device makers to follow.
"We never want to lose a major brand, and we think our share is staying constant with the major brands," Evenson said last week, Corning isn't standing still, The company -- which began tinkering with hardened glass in the 1960s with Gorilla Glass's precursor, called Chemcor, by bombarding it with frozen chickens at high rates of speed -- is working on a next generation of supertough glass to be introduced by the end of the year, It promises to withstand even more of a beating, Synthetic iphone case neck strap sapphire may take longer and be more expensive to make, but Apple could certainly produce enough of it for its millions of phone displays, The material's manufacturing process doesn't include rare minerals, so there's nothing preventing a company with an enormous cash stockpile like Apple to substantially increase production of sapphire, The quick ramp-up of man-made sapphire also has precedent: as the LED lighting market has taken off in recent years, sapphire has been needed in its production, necessitating a rapid increase in sapphire's creation in that time..